Diwali, Divali, Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights, generally enduring five days and praised during the Hindu Lunisolar month Kartika (between mid-October and mid-November).[3][4] One of the most well known celebrations of Hinduism, Diwali symbolizes the otherworldly "triumph of light over dimness, great over insidiousness, and information over ignorance".[5][6][7][8] The celebration is broadly related with Lakshmi, goddess of thriving, however provincial customs associate it to Sita and Rama, Vishnu, Krishna, Durga, Kali, Dhanvantari, or Vishvakarman.

In the number one spot up to Diwali, celebrants will get ready by cleaning, revamping, and beautifying their homes and workplaces.[9]During the Diwali individuals wear their best garments, enlighten the inside and outside of their homes with diyas (oil lights or candles), offer puja (worship) to Lakshmi, the goddess of thriving and wealth,[note 1] light firecrackers, and participate in family eats, where mithai(sweets) and endowments are shared. Diwali is additionally a significant social occasion for the Hindu and Jaindiaspora from the Indian subcontinent.[12][13][14]

The five-day celebration started in the Indian subcontinent and is referenced in early Sanskrit texts. Diwali is normally commended eighteen days after the Dussehra (Dasara, Dasain) celebration, with Dhanteras, or the territorial comparable, denoting the principal day of the celebration when celebrants plan by cleaning their homes and making enhancements on the floor, such as rangoli.[15] The second day is Naraka Chaturdashi, or the local proportional which for Hindus in the south of India is Diwali legitimate. Western, focal, eastern and northern Indian people group watch fundamental day of Diwali on the third day, the day of Lakshmi Puja and the darkest night of the conventional month. In certain pieces of India, the day after Lakshmi Puja is set apart with the Govardhan Puja and Balipratipada(Padwa), which is committed to the connection among spouse and husband. Some Hindu people group mark the most recent day as Bhai Dooj or the local proportionate, which is committed to the security among sister and brother,[16] while other Hindu and Sikh skilled workers networks mark this day as Vishwakarma Puja and watch it by performing upkeep in their work spaces and offering prayers.[17][18]

Some different beliefs in India likewise commend their separate celebrations nearby Diwali. The Jains observe their own Diwali which marks the last freedom of Mahavira,[19][20] the Sikhscelebrate Bandi Chhor Divas to mark the arrival of Guru Hargobind from a Mughal Empire prison,[21] while Newar Buddhists, in contrast to different Buddhists, observe Diwali by revering Lakshmi, while the Bengali Hindus generally observe Diwali, by adoring Goddess Kali.[22][23] The fundamental day of the celebration of Diwali (the day of Lakshmi Puja) is an official occasion in Fiji,[24] Guyana,[25]India, Malaysia (except Sarawak),[26]Mauritius, Myanmar,[27] Nepal,[28]Singapore,[29] Sri Lanka, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago.[30]

Diwali (English: /dɪˈwɑːliː/)[3] or Divali[34] is from the Sanskrit dīpāwali meaning "column or arrangement of lights".[35][36] The conjugated term is gotten from the Sanskrit words dīpa, "light, light, lamp, flame, what sparkles, sparkles, enlightens or knowledge"[37] and āvali, "a line, extend, ceaseless line, series".[38][note 2]

The five-day festivity is watched each year in early pre-winter after the finish of the mid year gather and agrees with the new moon, known as the amāsvasya –the darkest night of the Hindu lunisolar calendar.[39] The merriments start two days before amāsvasya, on Dhanteras, and expands two days after, the second day of the main fortnight of the long stretch of Kartik.[40] According to Indologist Constance Jones, who represents considerable authority in strict human science, this night parts of the bargains of Ashwin and starts the period of Kartika.[41][note 3] The darkest night is the summit of the festival and concurs with the second 50% of October or early November in the Gregorian calendar.[41]

The celebration peak is on the third day and is known as the principle Diwali. It is an official occasion in around twelve nations, while the other bubbly days are territorially seen as either open or discretionary confined occasions in India.[43] In Nepal, it is additionally a multiday celebration, despite the fact that the days and customs are named in an unexpected way, with the peak being called the Tihar festival by Hindus and Swanti festival by Buddhists.[44][45]

The Diwali celebration is likely a combination of collect celebrations in old India.[41] It is referenced in Sanskrit messages, for example, the Padma Purana, the Skanda Purana both of which were finished in the second 50% of the first thousand years CE. The diyas (lamps) are referenced in Skanda Kishore Purana as symbolizing portions of the sun, depicting it as the inestimable provider of light and vitality to all life and which regularly advances in the Hindu schedule month of Kartik.[32][46]

Lord Harsha alludes to Deepavali, in the seventh century Sanskrit play Nagananda, as Dīpapratipadotsava (dīpa = light, pratipadā = first day, utsava = celebration), where lights were lit and recently connected with ladies and grooms got gifts.[47][48] Rajasekhara referred to Deepavali as Dipamalika in his ninth century Kavyamimamsa, wherein he makes reference to the custom of homes being whitewashed and oil lights designed homes, boulevards and markets in the night.[47]

Diwali was additionally portrayed by various voyagers from outside India. In his eleventh century journal on India, the Persian voyager and historian Al Biruni wrote of Deepavali being commended by Hindus upon the arrival of the New Moon in the long stretch of Kartika.[49] The Venetian vendor and traveller Niccolò de' Conti visited India in the mid fifteenth century and wrote in his diary, "on another of these celebrations they fix up inside their sanctuaries, and outwardly of the rooftops, an incalculable number of oil lights... which are continued consuming day and night" and that the families would assemble, "dress themselves in new articles of clothing", sing, move and feast.[50][51] The sixteenth century Portuguese traveller Domingo Paes wrote of his visit to the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire, where Dipavali was celebrated in October with householders enlightening their homes, and their sanctuaries, with lamps.[51]

Islamic antiquarians of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire time additionally referenced Diwali and other Hindu celebrations. A couple, remarkably the Mughal emperor Akbar, invited and took an interest in the festivities,[52][53] whereas others restricted such celebrations as Diwali and Holi, as Aurangzeb did in 1665.[54][55][note 4][note 5]

Distributions from the British colonial time additionally went on about Diwali, for example, the note on Hindu celebrations distributed in 1799 by Sir William Jones, a philologist known for his initial perceptions on Sanskrit and Indo-European languages.[58] In his paper on The Lunar Year of the Hindus, Jones, at that point based in Bengal, noted four of the five days of Diwali in the harvest time months of Aswina-Cartica [sic] as the following: Bhutachaturdasi Yamaterpanam(2nd day), Lacshmipuja dipanwita (the day of Diwali), Dyuta pratipat Belipuja (4th day), and Bhratri dwitiya (5th day). The Lacshmipuja dipanwita, commented Jones, was an "extraordinary celebration around evening time, out of appreciation for Lakshmi, with enlightenments on trees and houses".[58][note 6]


Sanskrit engravings in stone and copper referencing Diwali, every so often close by terms such as Dipotsava, Dipavali, Divali and Divalige, have been found at various destinations across India.[60][61][note 7] Examples incorporate a tenth century Rashtrakuta domain copper plate engraving of Krsna III (939–967 CE) that mentions Dipotsava,[62] and a twelfth century blended Sanskrit-Kannada Sinda engraving found in the Isvara sanctuary of Dharwad in Karnataka where the engraving alludes to the celebration as a "holy occasion".[63] According to Lorenz Franz Kielhorn, a German Indologist known for deciphering numerous Indic engravings, this celebration is referenced as Dipotsavam in stanzas 6 and 7 of the Ranganatha sanctuary Sanskrit engraving of the thirteenth century Kerala Hindu lord Ravivarman Samgramadhira. Some portion of the engraving, as deciphered by Kielhorn, peruses: "the propitious celebration of lights which scatters the most significant haziness, which in previous days was commended by the lords Ila, Kartavirya and Sagara, (...) as Sakra (Indra) is of the divine beings, the all inclusive ruler who knows the obligations by the three Vedas, a short time later praised here at Ranga for Vishnu, shining with Lakshmi laying on his brilliant lap."[64][note 8]

Jain engravings, for example, the tenth century Saundatti engraving about a gift of oil to Jinendra love for the Diwali ceremonies, speak of Dipotsava.[65][66] Another mid thirteenth century Sanskrit stone engraving, written in the Devanagari content, has been found in the north finish of a mosque column in Jalore, Rajasthan evidently manufactured utilizing materials from a destroyed Jain sanctuary. The engraving states that Ramachandracharya fabricated and committed a show execution corridor, with a brilliant vault, on Diwali.[67][68][note 9]

Diwali is praised by Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, and Newar Buddhists,[22] although for every confidence it marks distinctive recorded occasions and stories, however regardless the celebration speaks to the equivalent emblematic triumph of light over obscurity, information over numbness, and great over evil.[5][6][69][70]


The strict criticalness of Diwali differs locally inside India. The celebration is related with a decent variety of gods, customs, and symbolism.[5][71][36] These varieties, states Constance Jones, may reflect differing nearby fall collect celebrations that combined into one dish Hindu celebration with a common profound criticalness and custom syntax while holding neighborhood traditions.[8]